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Amino Acid Dating is used to acquire dates numbering in the hundreds of thousands, although some calibration is required to account for local temperature conditions. Paleomagnetic / Archaeomagnetic dating: By studying the changes in the magnetic signature of deposits, artefacts, but particularly soil disturbance, archaeologists and paleontologists can determine precise dates.
There are two ways a magnetic signature forms - firstly through extreme heat such as in pottery production or hearth fires.
Similarly, herbchronology examines the growth rings in perennial plants other than trees to come up with the same information.
Such rings can tell us the year the plant or tree was cleared; it can also shed light on geological or environmental events that alter the environment.
The former gives a numeric age (for example, this artefact is 5000 years old); the latter provides a date based on relationships to other elements (for example, this geological layer formed before this other one).
When these materials are heated to high temperatures through such processes as pottery firing, that is released.
Once it cools, these materials begin to absorb energy from the sun once more.
Luminescence/Thermoluminescence: This measures the amount of light emitted from energy stored in rocks.
Geological materials store energy from the sun at a constant and known rate.